Review of: Papst Borgia

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Papst Borgia

Der Renaissance-Papst Alexander VI. - mit bürgerlichem Namen Rodrigo Borgia ( - ) - liefert durch seinen skrupellosen Lebens- und Herrschaftsstil. Die Borgia (italienisch) oder Borja (spanisch und valencianisch) waren eine aus als sein Onkel mütterlicherseits, Alonso de Borja, zum Papst gewählt wurde. Vatikanexperte Ulrich Nersinger über das Leben der Papsttochter. DOMRADIO.​DE: Wie kommt der Papst zu seiner Tochter? Ulrich Nersinger .

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Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am Dieser regierte als Papst Calixt III. von 14und ermöglichte Rodrigo de Borja den Aufstieg in der kirchlichen Hierarchie. Rodrigo Borgia studierte. Papst. Die Linie der Herzöge von Gandía, Nachfahren von Papst Alexanders Sohn Juan Borgia, starb erst aus. Zu ihr gehörte Francisco de Borja, der dritte. gelangte mit Rodrigo Borgia ein Spanier auf den Thron Petri. Er nannte sich Alexander VI. und strebte ein weltliches Fürstentum für seine Familie an. Eine glaubwürdige Anekdote behauptet, der Borgia-Papst Alexander VI. habe den umbrischen Meister Pinturicchio vor allem deswegen mit der. zum Papst gewählt: Alexander VI. Der Name des Borgia-Papstes bezieht sich auf den Teil der Gemächer, die er während seines Pontifikats nutzte, das von Die Borgia (italienisch) oder Borja (spanisch und valencianisch) waren eine aus als sein Onkel mütterlicherseits, Alonso de Borja, zum Papst gewählt wurde.

Papst Borgia

zum Papst gewählt: Alexander VI. Der Name des Borgia-Papstes bezieht sich auf den Teil der Gemächer, die er während seines Pontifikats nutzte, das von Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am Dieser regierte als Papst Calixt III. von 14und ermöglichte Rodrigo de Borja den Aufstieg in der kirchlichen Hierarchie. Rodrigo Borgia studierte.

While the enterprising explorers of Spain imposed a form of slavery called " encomienda " on the indigenous peoples they met in the New World, [41] some popes had spoken out against the practice of slavery.

In , Pope Eugene IV had issued an attack on slavery in the Canary Islands in his papal bull Sicut Dudum , which included the excommunication of all those who engaged in the slave trade with native chiefs there.

A form of indentured servitude was allowed, being similar to a peasant's duty to his liege lord in Europe. In the wake of Columbus 's landing in the New World, Pope Alexander was asked by the Spanish monarchy to confirm their ownership of these newly found lands.

Thornberry asserts that Inter Caetera was applied in the Requerimiento which was read to American Indians who could not understand the colonisers' language before hostilities against them began.

They were given the option to accept the authority of the Pope and Spanish crown or face being attacked and subjugated.

This was followed by a similar appeal in by the Parliament of World Religions. A danger now arose in the shape of a conspiracy by the deposed despots, the Orsini, and of some of Cesare's own condottieri.

At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked bleak for the house of Borgia. But a promise of French help quickly forced the confederates to come to terms.

Cesare, by an act of treachery, then seized the ringleaders at Senigallia and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death 31 December His goods were confiscated and many other members of the clan in Rome were arrested, while Alexander's son Goffredo Borgia led an expedition into the Campagna and seized their castles.

Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated and the Borgias' power increased.

Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father asked him to assist Goffredo in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to his father's annoyance; but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano.

The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and the Pope was forever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised the most advantageous terms at any moment.

Of Alexander's many mistresses the one for whom passion lasted longest was Vannozza Giovanna dei Cattanei , born in , and wife of three successive husbands.

The connection began in , and she had four children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Cesare born , Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia commonly known as Juan, born , Lucrezia born , and Gioffre Goffredo in Italian, born or For a period of time, before legitimizing his children after becoming Pope, Rodrigo pretended that his four children with Vannozza were his niece and nephews and that they were fathered by Vannozza's husbands.

Before his elevation to the papacy, Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life.

Her place in his affections was filled, according to some, by the beautiful Giulia Farnese " Giulia la Bella " , wife of an Orsini.

However, he still very dearly loved Vannozza, in a way he considered "spiritual", and his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career.

He lavished vast sums on them and lauded them with every honor. Vannozza lived in the Palace of a late Cardinal, or in a large, palatial villa.

The children lived between their mother's home and the Papal Palace itself. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia apparently lived with Giulia at a point.

Giovanni Borgia , 2nd Duke of Gandia. Portrait of Gentleman Cesare Borgia. Presumed portrait of Lucrezia Borgia by Bartolomeo Veneto.

Gioffre Borgia — Prince of Squillace. Four other children, Girolama, Isabella, Pedro-Luiz , and Bernardo, were of uncertain maternal parentage.

His daughter Isabella was the great-great-grandmother of Pope Innocent X , who was therefore descended in a direct line from Alexander. A daughter, Laura, was born to his mistress, Giulia Farnese ; paternity was officially attributed to Orsino Orsini Farnese's husband.

Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August when, after he and his father had dined with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi on 6 August, they were taken ill with fever a few days later.

Cesare, who "lay in bed, his skin peeling and his face suffused to a violet colour" [53] as a consequence of certain drastic measures to save him, eventually recovered; but the aged Pontiff apparently had little chance.

Burchard's Diary provides a few details of the pope's final illness and death at age [54]. Saturday, 12 August , the Pope fell ill in the morning.

After the hour of vespers, between six and seven o'clock a fever appeared and remained permanently. On 15 August thirteen ounces of blood were drawn from him and the tertian ague supervened.

On Thursday, 17 August, at nine o'clock in the forenoon he took medicine. On Friday, the 18th, between nine and ten o'clock he confessed to the Bishop Gamboa of Carignola, who then read Mass to him.

After his Communion he gave the Eucharist to the Pope who was sitting in bed. The Pope told them that he felt very bad. At the hour of vespers after Gamboa had given him Extreme Unction, he died.

As for his true faults, known only to his confessor, Pope Alexander VI apparently died genuinely repentant.

When at last the pope was suffering from a very severe sickness, he spontaneously requested, one after another, each of the last sacraments.

He first made a very careful confession of his sins, with a contrite heart, and was affected even to the shedding of tears, I am told; then he received in Communion the most Sacred Body and Extreme Unction was administered to him.

The interregnum witnessed again the ancient "tradition" of violence and rioting. The next day the body was exhibited to the people and clergy of Rome, but was covered by an "old tapestry" "antiquo tapete" , having become greatly disfigured by rapid decomposition.

According to Raphael Volterrano : "It was a revolting scene to look at that deformed, blackened corpse, prodigiously swelled, and exhaling an infectious smell; his lips and nose were covered with brown drivel, his mouth was opened very widely, and his tongue, inflated by poison, It has been suggested that, having taken into account the unusual level of decomposition, Alexander VI was accidentally poisoned to death by his son, Cesare, with cantarella which had been prepared to eliminate Cardinal Adriano , although some commentaries doubt these stories and attribute the Pope's death to malaria , then prevalent in Rome, or to another such pestilence.

After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Peter's and installed in the less well-known Spanish national church of Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli.

Before the death of Alexander VI, Rome was filled with political instability. He desecrated the Holy Church as none before. Sometimes overlooked is the fact that Alexander VI set about reforms of the increasingly irresponsible Curia.

He put together a group of his most pious cardinals in order to move the process along. Planned reforms included new rules on the sale of Church property, the limiting of cardinals to one bishopric, and stricter moral codes for clergy.

Alexander VI was known for his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.

Raphael , Michelangelo and Pinturicchio all worked for him. He took a great interest in theatrics, and he even had the Menaechmi performed in his apartments.

In addition to the arts, Alexander VI also encouraged the development of education. Alexander VI also, in , approved the University of Valencia.

Alexander VI, who was allegedly a marrano according to a black legend of papal rival Giuliano della Rovere , distinguished himself by his relatively benign treatment of Jews.

After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain , some 9, impoverished Iberian Jews arrived at the borders of the Papal States. Alexander welcomed them into Rome, declaring that they were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges".

He similarly allowed the immigration of Jews expelled from Portugal in and from Provence in It has been noted that the alleged misdeeds of Alexander VI are similar in nature to those of other Renaissance princes, with the one exception being his position in the Church.

As De Maistre said in his work Du Pape , "The latter are forgiven nothing, because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI.

Epitaphium Alexandri Papae Cui tranquilla quies odio, cui proelia cordi et rixa et caedes seditioque fuit, mortuus hac recubat populis gaudentibus urna pastor Alexander, maxima Roma, tuus.

Vos, Erebi proceres, vos caeli claudite portas atque Animam vestris hanc prohibete locis. In Styga nam veniens pacem turbabit Averni, committet superos, si petat astra poli.

Epitaph to Pope Alexander Who sacrificed quiet to hatred, with a warrior heart, who did not stop at quarrels, struggles and slaughters, is lying here in the coffin for all people to rejoice, thy supreme pontiff Alexander, oh, capital Rome.

Ye prelates of Erebus and Heaven, close your doors and prohibit the Soul from entering your sites. He would disrupt the peace of Styx and disturb Avernus , and vanquish the Saints, if he enters the sphere of stars.

Despite Julius II 's hostility, the Roman barons and Romagna vicars were never again to be the same problem for the papacy and Julius' successes owe much to the foundations laid by the Borgias.

Alexander Lee argues that the crimes attributed to the Borgias were exaggerated by contemporaries because they were outsiders expanding their holdings at the expense of the Italians, that they were Spaniards when it was felt that Spain had too much control on the Italian peninsula, and that after the death of Alexander the family lost its influence and therefore any incentive for anyone to defend them.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Spanish nobleperson, see Rodrigo de Borja Spanish noble. Pope of the Catholic Church — Main article: Papal conclave, Main article: Italian War of — This section needs additional citations for verification.

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April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Pope Alexander VI Gonzalo Gil de Borja 8. Rodrigo de Borja 4.

Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Fennolet 9. Sabina Anglesola 2. Pope Alexander VI Domingo I de Borja 6. Caterina Doncel 3. Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles 7.

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Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. Having lived nearly half a century in Rome, and having been for almost the whole of his life part of the ecclesiastical organization, he had a profound respect for all the interests of the Catholic Church, a respect greater than for his own life.

He was prepared to compromise upon all purely human questions, but inflexible upon whatever concerned the rights of religion.

He was the type of 'political priest', cautious and slow to act in the fact [sic] of the unforeseen, but brave to the point of heroism in defence of the great Institution whose direction had been entrusted to him.

He never ceased to be a student: if not occupied by Divine service or Church affairs he would be reading books It is admitted even by his enemies that he was a protector and promoter of literature and the sciences.

It was pointed out that on the third [of August ] the two of them had dined with the recently appointed Cardinal Adriano Castellesi in his nearby villa; the rumor rapidly spread around Rome that they had intended to poison their host but had inadvertently drunk the poisoned wine themselves.

For some reason this mildly ridiculous story has survived and found its way into a number of serious histories; it ignores the fact that..

Let us take a look first at the political situation in Spain and in Italy. For centuries, Spain had been almost completely overridden by the Moors.

The Spaniards had been trying to take back their country from the Moors for almost years. By the middle of the 15th century, this reconquest was almost complete, but Spain was still a hodgepodge of competing principalities and, because of its constant state of warfare, still a very backward country.

In Italy, on the other hand, the Renaissance, which had hardly begun in Spain, had reached its high point and the Italians in general did not look kindly on a citizen of this backward country being elevated to the highest post in the Church.

Remember, too, that the Pope at the time, besides his spiritual powers, was a sovereign political power with large areas of the peninsula, nominally, at least, under his control.

Italy was, politically, in a worse state than Spain. In the south, Naples was a fief of the Pope, but its ruler, King Ferrante, refused to acknowledge the Pope's authority.

In the north of the peninsula, many small principalities vied for dominance and were often at war with one another, changing alliances as rapidly as opportunity invited.

In the Papal States themselves, noble families, such as the Orsini and the Colonna, acted as petty tyrants in the cities and areas which they controlled, grinding down the people and constantly seeking to achieve their independence from their sovereign, the Pope.

These Roman families even sought to control the Papacy itself. It was probably only because they could not agree on an Italian successor to Nicholas V that the elderly Callistus had been elected; one who, in all probability, would not live long.

Callistus III was acknowledged by all as religious and austere, though severely criticized for his largesse to his family. But he was surrounded by enemies both within the Church and among the rulers of Europe.

When elected, he did what all leaders do, he surrounded himself with people whom he believed he could trust. A Spaniard in Italy, he was hard pressed to find such trustworthiness except from members of his own family; hence his patronage of them, though it is not to be denied that it was probably also for personal reasons.

Alexander opened the first holy door in St. Peter's Basilica on Christmas Eve, , and papal legates opened the doors in the other three patriarchal basilicas.

For this occasion, Pope Alexander had a new opening created in the portico of St. Peter's and commissioned a door, made of marble, 3. It lasted until when another door was installed in the new basilica.

The door, in turn, was replaced in by the bronze door, which is still in use. In a ceremony strikingly similar in many ways to today's ritual opening of a holy door, Alexander was carried in the gestatorial chair to the portico of St.

He and the members of his retinue, bearing long candles, processed to the holy door, as the choir intoned Psalm — "Open for me the gate of Yahweh, where the upright go in.

Thus, Pope Alexander, a lover of pomp and ceremony, formalized the rite of opening a holy door and began a tradition that continues, with few variations, to this day.

Similar rites were held at the other patriarchal basilicas. Alexander was also the first to institute a special rite for the closing of a holy door.

On the feast of the Epiphany, 6 January , two cardinals — one with a silver brick and the other with a gold one — symbolically began to seal the holy door.

Basilica workers known as sanpietrini completed the task, which included placing small coins and medals, minted during the holy year, inside the wall.

The Pope himself performed this ceremony on Christmas Eve, , having taken pains to settle all the details beforehand with his Master of Ceremonies.

The ceremonial observed on these occasions was no modern invention, but, as the Bull of Indiction expressly says, was founded on ancient rites and full of symbolic meaning.

According to Burchard, the crowd which assisted at these solemnities numbered , persons. Although this may be an exaggeration, still it is certain that, in spite of the troubles of the times and the insecurity in Rome itself, the numbers attending this Jubilee were very large.

Peter's Basilica. On a similar claim: "Without any solid evidence Giulia is said to have been the model for Pinturicchio's 'Virgin and Child' surrounded by angels in the Borgia Apartments of the Vatican.

Et fuit tediosa et longa oratio. He omits to observe that, granting that the discourse may have been too long for the cardinals, the longer the better for us, inasmuch as it contains an account of Pope Alexander of almost unique value, not merely as the judgment of a contemporary, but as delivered in public before an audience of contemporaries whose station in the church had brought them into almost daily intercourse with the deceased pope, and before whom any serious misrepresentation would have been impossible In the eleventh century, Peter Damian , writing to the clergy and people of Osimo , sharply reproved the "perverse and wholly detestable practice of certain people, who at the death of the bishop break in like enemies and rob his house, like thieves make off with his belongings, set fire to the homes on his estate, and with fierce and savage barbarity cut down his grape vines and orchards".

The pope was banned from selling benefices and from transferring Church property to laypersons. As for the cardinals, who were to be drawn from all the nations, none should possess more than one bishopric; their households were limited to eighty people and thirty horses; they were banned from hunting, theaters, carnivals, and tournaments; and their funeral expenses were not to exceed 1, ducats.

The lesser clergy were similarly reined in: they must refuse all bribes and put away their concubines. Plays, for the most part of an extremely objectionable character, were a prominent feature in all court festivities, and also in the Carnival amusements, in which Alexander took a great interest.

In the Pope had the Menaechmi performed in his own apartments. History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. Volume 7, Part 1. London: George Bell.

Edited by Fredi Chiappelli. Isabella: The Warrior Queen. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Retrieved 22 December Peter de Roo, in Vol.

Peter de Roo, as quoted by N. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni , vol. Studies in Church History. Volume 3. New York and Cincinnati: F.

The Rise of Modern Diplomacy — London: Longman. New York: Bantam Books. Juan de Albret y Catalina de Foix o la defensa del Estado navarro — Rorate Caeli.

Retrieved 25 March Catholic Culture. Latin American Studies. Glaser, tr. Brown, New York, p. MacManamon, S. Letters 31—60 , Owen J.

New York: John Lane. Die Feinde der Borgia versuchten, den König, der sich im Sommer zur Ordnung seiner Angelegenheiten in der Lombardei aufhielt, auf ihre Seite zu ziehen.

Cesare aber erreichte in einer persönlichen Unterredung mit dem König ein neuerliches Bündnis, indem Cesare die Eroberung Arezzos einer Eigenmächtigkeit seines Feldherren Vitellozzo Vitelli anlastete und der König die Unterstützung des Papstes im Kampf um Neapel begehrte.

Damit aber verloren die Bentivoglio Giovanni II. Bentivoglio und die Orsini ihren Schutzherrn. Die meisten glaubten aber, Cesare habe die Gunst des französischen Herrschers endgültig verspielt, und schmiedeten Rachepläne.

Oktober trafen sich in der Nähe des Trasimenischen Sees nicht nur Vertreter der Orsini, sondern auch der besagte Vitelli sowie die Herrscher von Perugia und ein Vertreter der Bentivoglio; sogar der Herr von Siena schickte einen Vertreter.

Die Verbündeten machten sich rasch ans Werk. Oktober gehörte Urbino wieder den Montefeltro, und die da Varano kehrten nach Camerino zurück. Alexander wiegte seine Gegner durch scheinbare Vergebung in Sicherheit.

Ein Vertrag wurde unterzeichnet, der alle nun wieder mit Cesare Verbündeten in ihre alten Rechte einsetzte. Während Cesare seine Gegner unter einem Vorwand am Mittlerweile wurde Urbino neuerlich von Cesare erobert, und Alexander verlangte von Venedig die Auslieferung des Guidobaldo da Montefeltro.

Als am Die Orsini, gegen die Cesare jetzt einen Vernichtungskrieg anzettelte, erfreuten sich aber wachsender Unterstützung und waren auch imstande, nicht nur päpstliche Bergwerke zu plündern, sondern ihre Ausfälle bis in die Ewige Stadt auszudehnen.

Mittlerweile jedoch fühlten sich sowohl der französische König als auch Venedig durch die Verbindungen mit Alexander massiv belastet.

Alexander suchte nach neuen Verbündeten und wollte dafür Spanien gewinnen. Die Ermordung Michiels hatte jedoch nur einen Bruchteil der erwarteten Summe eingebracht und so wurde eine neue Kardinalserhebung veranlasst, die geschätzte Doch nun zögerte Alexander, den Kurswechsel auch tatsächlich zu vollziehen.

Einerseits hatte sich nämlich Ludwig nicht mit der Niederlage abgefunden und war dabei, ein neues Heer auszurüsten, und andererseits würde ein Wechsel ins spanische Lager auch die Zukunftsaussichten Cesares, der als Herzog von Valence Lehensmann des Franzosen war, massiv beeinträchtigen.

Da Alexander während seines Pontifikats mit Entschiedenheit das Ziel verfolgte, seinen Kindern ein angemessenes Reich zu hinterlassen, vertrug sich ein Seitenwechsel nicht mit der Perspektive eines französischen Herzogtums.

Sein Vermögen, das mehr als Mord dürfte hier eher nicht im Spiel gewesen sein, denn in diesen unruhigen Zeiten war eine sichere Stimme in der Kurie wichtiger als jeder Reichtum.

Sein Wahljubiläum am August wurde weniger imposant gefeiert als bislang üblich. Doch am nächsten Morgen begann er zu erbrechen, am Nachmittag kam Fieber.

Zunächst erholte er sich jedoch, ehe er in der Nacht vom August einen schweren Rückfall erlitt.

Wie in Rom verbreitet wurde, sei der Körper des Toten binnen kürzester Zeit unnatürlich aufgequollen, habe sich schwarz verfärbt und übelriechende Flüssigkeiten abgesondert.

Natürlich sahen die Zeitgenossen darin die Bestätigung dafür, dass der Papst vergiftet und seine Seele vom Teufel geholt worden sei.

Weiter schreckten die Borgia nicht davor zurück, auch körperliche Gewalt einzusetzen, wenn es möglich war. Diejenigen Kardinäle, die diesem Bankett aus Anlass des Jubiläums der Papstwahl beiwohnten, hätten genauso leicht wie etwa Giovanni Orsini festgenommen und in der Engelsburg eingekerkert werden können.

Alexander erbrach jedoch nur wenige Male, erst dann setzte das Fieber ein, aber er erholte sich rasch wieder bis zum nächsten Fieberschub eine Woche später.

Die zweite populäre Version der Vergiftung Alexanders sieht den oben erwähnten Kardinal Castellesi als Täter, der mit der Ermordung Alexanders seiner eigenen Beseitigung zuvorkommen wollte.

Tatsächlich war Castellesi für damalige Verhältnisse geradezu unermesslich reich. Auch er hatte, wie so viele andere Kardinäle jener Zeit, den Purpurhut gegen die Zahlung einer enormen Summe erhalten.

Quellen wie Burckard oder Giovio sprechen von Im Gegensatz zum Venezianer Michiel war Castellesi jedoch ein deklarierter Parteigänger der Borgia und noch dazu mit Giuliano della Rovere , der seit dem Beginn des Pontifikats Alexanders dessen Sturz betrieb, intensiv verfeindet.

Zudem waren jene Kardinäle, die meinten, von den Borgia etwas befürchten zu müssen, zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits aus Rom geflohen. Castellesi konnte also nichts gewinnen, sondern nur verlieren.

Sobald Alexanders Pontifikat beendet gewesen wäre, hätte er seinen Protektor verloren. Castellesi gezwungen, die Flucht zu ergreifen, da auch dieser Papst nicht davor zurückschreckte, seine Gegner aus dem Weg räumen zu lassen.

Da seine Widersacher nicht davor zurückschreckten, ihn als den Antichrist auf dem Papstthron, ja gar als mit dem Teufel im Bunde zu diffamieren, musste auch sein Tod als abschreckendes Beispiel zur moralischen Erbauung dienen.

Sein Lebenswandel führte wohl auch dazu, dass ihm ein ehrenvolles Grab zunächst verwehrt blieb. Im Jahre wurden seine Gebeine in die Kirche Santa Maria di Monserrato überführt; ein dort geplantes Grabmal wurde jedoch nicht ausgeführt.

Alexanders Wirken für eine geordnete Verwaltung der Kirche und des Kirchenstaates sowie der Wiederherstellung von deren Macht sind genauso unbestritten wie sein Engagement in der Mission Südamerikas.

Nachdem er mit der Bulle Inter caetera den spanischen Königen die Rechte an neu entdeckten Ländern in Amerika geschenkt hatte, besteuerte er gegen den heftigen Protest der spanischen Krone spanisches Kirchenvermögen, wohl in der Absicht, diese Mission nicht völlig auf Kosten der Indianer gehen zu lassen.

Um eine friedliche Abgrenzung der Interessenssphären dieser beiden christlichen Mächte herbeizuführen, wurde die Trennungslinie weiter nach Westen verschoben, so dass die Portugiesen die Gebiete Brasiliens kolonialisieren konnten.

Alexanders Lebenswandel unterschied sich nicht signifikant negativ von demjenigen anderer Kirchen- Fürsten seiner Zeit. Ein Urteil über seine Frömmigkeit ist zweifellos problematisch, doch ist seine aufrichtige Marienverehrung von Zeitgenossen der Kurie bezeugt.

Gemessen am Anspruch des Papsttums ist der Lebenswandel kritisch zu sehen. Zweifellos verstanden sich die Päpste dieser Zeit als Territorialfürsten, nicht als liturgische und theologische Führungsgestalten.

Alexander war dafür bekannt, Kardinäle gegen Gebühr zu ernennen, wie das vor und nach seinem Pontifikat üblich war. Dispens wurde ebenso gegen entsprechende Bezahlung erteilt wie nach Abwägung politischer Nützlichkeiten; verurteilte Mörder begnadigte er gegen eine entsprechende Spende.

Giovanni de Medici, der spätere Papst Leo X. Andererseits kritisierte er offen den ausschweifenden Lebensstil seines Sohnes Cesare, und seine Arbeitsdisziplin war hoch.

Seine Einladungen zum Essen waren unbeliebt, weil stets nur ein einziger Gang serviert wurde. Alexander unterhielt sowohl vor als auch nach dem Antritt seines Pontifikats Beziehungen zu verschiedenen Mätressen.

Mindestens acht Kinder entsprangen diesen Verbindungen, meist sind die Mütter jedoch unbekannt. Das Mädchen erhielt jedoch den Nachnamen von Giulias Ehemann und Alexander zeigte nie das geringste Interesse für dieses Kind, weswegen andere Historiker dies für unwahrscheinlich halten.

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Vatikanexperte Ulrich Nersinger über das Leben der Papsttochter. DOMRADIO.​DE: Wie kommt der Papst zu seiner Tochter? Ulrich Nersinger . Der Renaissance-Papst Alexander VI. - mit bürgerlichem Namen Rodrigo Borgia ( - ) - liefert durch seinen skrupellosen Lebens- und Herrschaftsstil. Alexander VI. Borgia: Der unheimliche Papst (Beck'sche Reihe ) eBook: Reinhardt, Volker: spainbeachapartment.eu: Kindle-Shop. Alexander VI. Borgia: Der unheimliche Papst: Der unheimliche Papst - eine Biographie | Reinhardt, Volker | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für​. Bischof von Albano — DE Chefredakteur blickt auf die Woche. Benedikt XVI. Doch am nächsten Morgen begann er zu erbrechen, Trailer Die Mumie Nachmittag kam Fieber. Um eine friedliche Abgrenzung der Interessenssphären dieser beiden christlichen Mächte herbeizuführen, wurde die Trennungslinie weiter nach Westen verschoben, so dass die Portugiesen die Papst Borgia Brasiliens kolonialisieren konnten. Alexander suchte nach neuen Verbündeten und wollte dafür Spanien gewinnen. Auch er war längst nicht so, wie er uns dargestellt wird, leider auch heute in manchen Fernsehserien und in berühmten Romanen, denken wir an Alexandre Dumas und Victor Hugo. Alexanders Lebenswandel unterschied sich nicht signifikant negativ von demjenigen anderer Kirchen- Fürsten seiner Zeit. Sie pflegten Harry Und Toto Wurzeln Papst Borgia sprachen auch in Rom innerhalb der Familie das Valencianische[1] eine Varietät der katalanischen Sprache. Das waren kirchenpolitische Interessen, die dahinter standen. Viele sind eben auch Kardinal geworden, ohne die Priester- oder Sanitarium Bischofsweihe zu haben. Alle Impulse hier. Drei Tote bei Messerattacke in einer Kirche in Nizza. Da seine Widersacher nicht davor zurückschreckten, ihn als den Antichrist auf dem Das Schweigen, ja gar als Gloomy Sunday Film dem Teufel im Bunde zu diffamieren, musste auch sein Tod als abschreckendes Beispiel zur moralischen Erbauung dienen. Mord dürfte hier eher nicht im Spiel gewesen sein, denn in diesen unruhigen Zeiten war eine sichere Stimme in der Kurie wichtiger als jeder Reichtum. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Warum hat man sie nicht so positiv in Erinnerung?

In contrast to the preceding pontificate, Pope Alexander VI adhered initially to strict administration of justice and orderly government.

Before long, though, he began endowing his relatives at the church's and at his neighbours' expense. Cesare Borgia , his son, while a youth of seventeen and a student at Pisa , was made Archbishop of Valencia , and Giovanni Borgia inherited the Spanish Dukedom of Gandia , the Borgias' ancestral home in Spain.

Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cerveteri and Anguillara , lately acquired by Virginio Orsini , head of that powerful house.

This policy brought Ferdinand I, King of Naples , into conflict with Alexander, who was also opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand.

Della Rovere fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber 's mouth as Alexander formed a league against Naples 25 April and prepared for war.

Ferdinand allied himself with Florence , Milan and Venice. He also appealed to Spain for help, but Spain was eager to be on good terms with the papacy to obtain the title to the recently discovered New World.

Alexander, in the bull Inter Caetera on 4 May , divided the title between Spain and Portugal along a demarcation line. This became the basis of the Treaty of Tordesillas which was ratified by Spain on 2 July and by Portugal on 5 September This and other related bulls are known collectively as the Bulls of Donation.

Pope Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo Sforza , the husband of his granddaughter Isabella , Alexander encouraged the French king in his plan for the conquest of Naples.

But Alexander, always ready to seize opportunities to aggrandize his family, then adopted a double policy. Among the new cardinals was his own son Cesare, then only 18 years old.

Alexander authorised him to pass through Rome, ostensibly on a crusade against the Ottoman Empire , without mentioning Naples.

But when the French invasion became a reality Pope Alexander VI became alarmed, recognised Alfonso II as king of Naples, and concluded an alliance with him in exchange for various fiefs for his sons July A military response to the French threat was set in motion: a Neapolitan army was to advance through Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa.

The Papal States were in turmoil, and the powerful Colonna faction seized Ostia in the name of France. He tried to collect troops and put Rome in a state of defence, but his position was precarious.

When the Orsini offered to admit the French to their castles, Alexander had no choice but to come to terms with Charles. Alexander now feared that Charles might depose him for simony , and that the king would summon a council to nominate a new pope.

Alexander was able to win over the bishop of Saint-Malo , who had much influence over the king, with a cardinal's hat. Ferdinand was abandoned by all and also had to escape, and the Kingdom of Naples was conquered with surprising ease.

He met the League at Fornovo and cut his way through them and was back in France by November. Ferdinand II was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards, with Spanish help.

The expedition, if it produced no material results, demonstrated the foolishness of the so-called "politics of equilibrium", the Medicean doctrine of preventing one of the Italian principates from overwhelming the rest and uniting them under its hegemony.

Charles VIII's belligerence in Italy had made it transparent that the "politics of equilibrium" did nothing but render the country unable to defend itself against a powerful invading force.

Italy was shown to be very vulnerable to the predations of the powerful nation-states, France and Spain, that had forged themselves during the previous century.

Alexander VI now followed the general tendency of all the princes of the day to crush the great feudatories and establish a centralized despotism.

In this manner, he was able to take advantage of the defeat of the French in order to break the power of the Orsini. From that time on, Alexander was able to build himself an effective power base in the Papal States.

Virginio Orsini , who had been captured by the Spanish, died a prisoner at Naples, and the Pope confiscated his property. Peace was made through Venetian mediation, the Orsini paying 50, ducats in exchange for their confiscated lands; the Duke of Urbino, whom they had captured, was left by the Pope to pay his own ransom.

His only success had been the capture of Ostia and the submission of the Francophile cardinals Colonna and Savelli. Then occurred a major domestic tragedy for the house of Borgia.

On 14 June, his son the Duke of Gandia , who was lately created Duke of Benevento , disappeared; the next day, his corpse was found in the Tiber. Next morning the absence of the Duke was noticed by his servants, and the Pontiff was informed.

He was not too worried for, as Burchard says, Alexander jumped to the conclusion that his son had spent the night with some girl and preferred to avoid the indiscretion of leaving by day Juan was a dissolute young man and not a churchman, yet Alexander presumed on a discretion more in keeping with later times.

Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castel Sant'Angelo. He declared that henceforth the moral reform of the Church would be the sole object of his life.

Every effort was made to discover the assassin, and suspicion fell on various highly placed people. Enquiries suddenly ceased without explanation. Cesare was suspected but not until much later and he was never named in the immediate aftermath, nor would there have been any particular reason for him to commit such a crime.

The Duke had many other enemies. Ascanio Sforza, for example, had had a terrible row with him just a few days before the murder homicide.

No conclusive explanation was ever reached, [28] and it may be that the crime was simply as a result of one of the Duke's sexual liaisons.

It is often alleged, even by some historians, that Alexander and his son, Cesare, poisoned Cardinal Adriano Castellesi , but this is unlikely.

There is no evidence that the Borgias resorted to poisoning, judicial murder, or extortion to fund their schemes and the defense of the Papal States.

The only contemporary accusations of poisoning were from some of the servants of the Borgias, extracted under torture by Alexander's bitter enemy Della Rovere, who succeeded him as Pope Julius II.

The debased state of the curia was a major scandal. Opponents, such as the powerful demagogic Florentine friar Girolamo Savonarola , launched invectives against papal corruption and appealed for a general council to confront the papal abuses.

Alexander is reported to have been reduced to laughter when Savonarola's denunciations were related to him.

Nevertheless, he appointed Sebastian Maggi to investigate the friar, and he responded on 16 October We are displeased at the disturbed state of affairs in Florence, the more so in that it owes its origin to your preaching.

For you predict the future and publicly declare that you do so by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit when you should be reprehending vice and praising virtue Prophecies like these should not be made when your charge is to forward peace and concord.

Moreover, these are not the time for such teachings, calculated as they are to produce discord even in times of peace let alone in times of trouble.

Since, however, we have been most happy to learn from certain cardinals and from your letter that you are ready to submit yourself to the reproofs of the Church, as becomes a Christian and a religious, we are beginning to think that what you have done has not been done with an evil motive, but from a certain simple-mindedness and a zeal, however misguided, for the Lord's vineyard.

Our duty, however, prescribes that we order you, under holy obedience, to cease from public and private preaching until you are able to come to our presence, not under armed escort as is your present habit, but safely, quietly and modestly as becomes a religious, or until we make different arrangements.

If you obey, as we hope you will, we for the time being suspend the operation of our former Brief so that you may live in peace in accordance with the dictates of your conscience.

The hostility of Savonarola seems to have been political rather than personal, and the friar sent a touching letter of condolence to the Pope on the death of the Duke of Gandia; "Faith, most Holy Father, is the one and true source of peace and consolation Faith alone brings consolation from a far-off country.

The prominent Italian families looked down on the Spanish Borgia family, and they resented their power, which they sought for themselves. In these circumstances Alexander, feeling more than ever that he could only rely on his own kin, turned his thoughts to further family aggrandizement.

He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage to Giovanni Sforza , who had responded to the suggestion that he was impotent with the unsubstantiated counter-claim that Alexander and Cesare indulged in incestuous relations with Lucrezia, in Alexander and the new French king Louis XII entered a secret agreement; in exchange for a bull of divorce between the king and Joan of France so he could marry Anne of Brittany and making Georges d'Amboise the king's chief advisor the cardinal of Rouen , Cesare was given the duchy of Valentinois chosen because it was consistent with his nickname, Valentino , military assistance to help him subjugate the feudal princelings of papal Romagna, [36] and a princess bride, Charlotte of Albret from the Kingdom of Navarre.

In spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January and was joined by Venice.

With French success seemingly assured, the Pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan, and Florence cast hungry eyes.

Cesare, empowered by the support of the French, began to attack the turbulent cities one by one in his capacity as nominated gonfaloniere standard bearer of the church.

But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in In the Jubilee year , Alexander ushered in the custom of opening a holy door on Christmas Eve and closing it on Christmas Day the following year.

Peter's Basilica on Christmas Eve , and papal representatives opened the doors in the other three patriarchal basilicas.

For this, Pope Alexander had a new opening created in the portico of St. Peter's and commissioned a marble door.

This door lasted until , when another door was installed in the new basilica. In a ceremony similar to today's, Alexander was carried in the sedia gestatoria to St.

He and his assistants, bearing candles, processed to the holy door, as the choir chanted Psalm — The Pope knocked on the door three times, workers moved it from the inside, and everyone then crossed the threshold to enter into a period of penance and reconciliation.

Thus, Pope Alexander formalized the rite and began a longstanding tradition that is still in practice. Similar ceremonies were held at the other three basilicas.

Alexander instituted a special rite for the closing of a holy door, as well. On the Feast of the Epiphany in , two cardinals began to seal the holy door with two bricks, one silver and one gold.

Sampietrini basilica workers [Note 9] completed the seal, placing specially-minted coins and medals inside the wall. While the enterprising explorers of Spain imposed a form of slavery called " encomienda " on the indigenous peoples they met in the New World, [41] some popes had spoken out against the practice of slavery.

In , Pope Eugene IV had issued an attack on slavery in the Canary Islands in his papal bull Sicut Dudum , which included the excommunication of all those who engaged in the slave trade with native chiefs there.

A form of indentured servitude was allowed, being similar to a peasant's duty to his liege lord in Europe. In the wake of Columbus 's landing in the New World, Pope Alexander was asked by the Spanish monarchy to confirm their ownership of these newly found lands.

Thornberry asserts that Inter Caetera was applied in the Requerimiento which was read to American Indians who could not understand the colonisers' language before hostilities against them began.

They were given the option to accept the authority of the Pope and Spanish crown or face being attacked and subjugated.

This was followed by a similar appeal in by the Parliament of World Religions. A danger now arose in the shape of a conspiracy by the deposed despots, the Orsini, and of some of Cesare's own condottieri.

At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked bleak for the house of Borgia. But a promise of French help quickly forced the confederates to come to terms.

Cesare, by an act of treachery, then seized the ringleaders at Senigallia and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death 31 December His goods were confiscated and many other members of the clan in Rome were arrested, while Alexander's son Goffredo Borgia led an expedition into the Campagna and seized their castles.

Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated and the Borgias' power increased.

Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father asked him to assist Goffredo in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to his father's annoyance; but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano.

The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and the Pope was forever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised the most advantageous terms at any moment.

Of Alexander's many mistresses the one for whom passion lasted longest was Vannozza Giovanna dei Cattanei , born in , and wife of three successive husbands.

The connection began in , and she had four children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Cesare born , Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia commonly known as Juan, born , Lucrezia born , and Gioffre Goffredo in Italian, born or For a period of time, before legitimizing his children after becoming Pope, Rodrigo pretended that his four children with Vannozza were his niece and nephews and that they were fathered by Vannozza's husbands.

Before his elevation to the papacy, Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life. Her place in his affections was filled, according to some, by the beautiful Giulia Farnese " Giulia la Bella " , wife of an Orsini.

However, he still very dearly loved Vannozza, in a way he considered "spiritual", and his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career.

He lavished vast sums on them and lauded them with every honor. Vannozza lived in the Palace of a late Cardinal, or in a large, palatial villa.

The children lived between their mother's home and the Papal Palace itself. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia apparently lived with Giulia at a point.

Giovanni Borgia , 2nd Duke of Gandia. Portrait of Gentleman Cesare Borgia. Presumed portrait of Lucrezia Borgia by Bartolomeo Veneto.

Gioffre Borgia — Prince of Squillace. Four other children, Girolama, Isabella, Pedro-Luiz , and Bernardo, were of uncertain maternal parentage.

His daughter Isabella was the great-great-grandmother of Pope Innocent X , who was therefore descended in a direct line from Alexander.

A daughter, Laura, was born to his mistress, Giulia Farnese ; paternity was officially attributed to Orsino Orsini Farnese's husband. Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August when, after he and his father had dined with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi on 6 August, they were taken ill with fever a few days later.

Cesare, who "lay in bed, his skin peeling and his face suffused to a violet colour" [53] as a consequence of certain drastic measures to save him, eventually recovered; but the aged Pontiff apparently had little chance.

Burchard's Diary provides a few details of the pope's final illness and death at age [54]. Saturday, 12 August , the Pope fell ill in the morning.

After the hour of vespers, between six and seven o'clock a fever appeared and remained permanently. On 15 August thirteen ounces of blood were drawn from him and the tertian ague supervened.

On Thursday, 17 August, at nine o'clock in the forenoon he took medicine. On Friday, the 18th, between nine and ten o'clock he confessed to the Bishop Gamboa of Carignola, who then read Mass to him.

After his Communion he gave the Eucharist to the Pope who was sitting in bed. The Pope told them that he felt very bad. At the hour of vespers after Gamboa had given him Extreme Unction, he died.

As for his true faults, known only to his confessor, Pope Alexander VI apparently died genuinely repentant. When at last the pope was suffering from a very severe sickness, he spontaneously requested, one after another, each of the last sacraments.

He first made a very careful confession of his sins, with a contrite heart, and was affected even to the shedding of tears, I am told; then he received in Communion the most Sacred Body and Extreme Unction was administered to him.

The interregnum witnessed again the ancient "tradition" of violence and rioting. The next day the body was exhibited to the people and clergy of Rome, but was covered by an "old tapestry" "antiquo tapete" , having become greatly disfigured by rapid decomposition.

According to Raphael Volterrano : "It was a revolting scene to look at that deformed, blackened corpse, prodigiously swelled, and exhaling an infectious smell; his lips and nose were covered with brown drivel, his mouth was opened very widely, and his tongue, inflated by poison, It has been suggested that, having taken into account the unusual level of decomposition, Alexander VI was accidentally poisoned to death by his son, Cesare, with cantarella which had been prepared to eliminate Cardinal Adriano , although some commentaries doubt these stories and attribute the Pope's death to malaria , then prevalent in Rome, or to another such pestilence.

After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Peter's and installed in the less well-known Spanish national church of Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli.

Before the death of Alexander VI, Rome was filled with political instability. He desecrated the Holy Church as none before.

Sometimes overlooked is the fact that Alexander VI set about reforms of the increasingly irresponsible Curia. He put together a group of his most pious cardinals in order to move the process along.

Planned reforms included new rules on the sale of Church property, the limiting of cardinals to one bishopric, and stricter moral codes for clergy.

Alexander VI was known for his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.

Raphael , Michelangelo and Pinturicchio all worked for him. He took a great interest in theatrics, and he even had the Menaechmi performed in his apartments.

In addition to the arts, Alexander VI also encouraged the development of education. Alexander VI also, in , approved the University of Valencia.

Alexander VI, who was allegedly a marrano according to a black legend of papal rival Giuliano della Rovere , distinguished himself by his relatively benign treatment of Jews.

After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain , some 9, impoverished Iberian Jews arrived at the borders of the Papal States.

Alexander welcomed them into Rome, declaring that they were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges".

He similarly allowed the immigration of Jews expelled from Portugal in and from Provence in It has been noted that the alleged misdeeds of Alexander VI are similar in nature to those of other Renaissance princes, with the one exception being his position in the Church.

As De Maistre said in his work Du Pape , "The latter are forgiven nothing, because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI.

Epitaphium Alexandri Papae Cui tranquilla quies odio, cui proelia cordi et rixa et caedes seditioque fuit, mortuus hac recubat populis gaudentibus urna pastor Alexander, maxima Roma, tuus.

Vos, Erebi proceres, vos caeli claudite portas atque Animam vestris hanc prohibete locis. In Styga nam veniens pacem turbabit Averni, committet superos, si petat astra poli.

Epitaph to Pope Alexander Who sacrificed quiet to hatred, with a warrior heart, who did not stop at quarrels, struggles and slaughters, is lying here in the coffin for all people to rejoice, thy supreme pontiff Alexander, oh, capital Rome.

Ye prelates of Erebus and Heaven, close your doors and prohibit the Soul from entering your sites. He would disrupt the peace of Styx and disturb Avernus , and vanquish the Saints, if he enters the sphere of stars.

Despite Julius II 's hostility, the Roman barons and Romagna vicars were never again to be the same problem for the papacy and Julius' successes owe much to the foundations laid by the Borgias.

Alexander Lee argues that the crimes attributed to the Borgias were exaggerated by contemporaries because they were outsiders expanding their holdings at the expense of the Italians, that they were Spaniards when it was felt that Spain had too much control on the Italian peninsula, and that after the death of Alexander the family lost its influence and therefore any incentive for anyone to defend them.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Spanish nobleperson, see Rodrigo de Borja Spanish noble.

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April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Pope Alexander VI Gonzalo Gil de Borja 8.

Rodrigo de Borja 4. Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Fennolet 9. Sabina Anglesola 2. Pope Alexander VI Domingo I de Borja 6. Caterina Doncel 3. Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles 7.

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So konnte sich Alexander darauf beschränken, von den spanischen und französischen Königen zu verlangen, mit gutem Beispiel voranzugehen, weil er darauf vertrauen konnte, dass es dazu nicht kommen würde.

Frankreich und Spanien hatten sich über eine Teilung des Gebietes verständigt, und König Federico wurde vom Papst abgesetzt. Schon im Juli wurde Capua eingenommen und Federico begab sich nach Ischia , wo er sich dem französischen König unterwarf.

Er erhielt dafür ein französisches Herzogtum, und die Geschichte der Aragonesen auf dem neapolitanischen Thron war damit endgültig zu Ende.

Lucrezia weigerte sich zunächst, konnte sich aber gegen ihren Vater nicht durchsetzen. Beide Familien wurden überdies im August feierlich exkommuniziert.

Im Frühjahr war das Einvernehmen zwischen Spanien und Frankreich in Neapel dem üblichen Krieg zwischen den beiden Mächten gewichen, und Cesare streckte seine Hand nach dem Herzogtum Urbino aus, das den Montefeltre gehörte.

Im Juni kündigte Alexander seinen Besuch von Ferrara in Begleitung aller Kardinäle an, aber dieses Manöver diente lediglich dazu, den Aufbruch seines Sohnes, der mittlerweile zum Bannerträger Gonfaloniere des Papstes befördert worden war, an der Spitze einer Armee in Richtung Spoleto zu verschleiern.

Es sollte das Herzogtum von Urbino überfallen werden, und Cesare hatte sich einer grauenhaften List bedient, um die Eroberung auch der Stadt sicherzustellen.

Nach einer abenteuerlichen Flucht, bei der ihm einige seiner eigenen Burgherren die Aufnahme verweigert hatten, fand er endlich Asyl im Einflussbereich der Serenissima.

Nur kurz danach, am Juli , gelang Cesare die Einnahme von Camerino wieder durch Verrat , bei der der einstige Generalkommandant der Venezianer Giulio Cesare da Varano von den Borgia gefangen genommen wurde; auch er wurde später in Rom ermordet.

Als Nächstes richtete sich Alexanders Begehren auf Bologna. Der venezianische Stadtschreiber jener Zeit, Marino Sanudo , berichtete, der Papst sei so versessen auf Bologna, dass er notfalls seine Mitra verkaufen würde, um die Stadt zu besitzen.

Bentivoglio , der Herrscher Bolognas, stand unter dem besonderen Schutz des französischen Königs. Die Feinde der Borgia versuchten, den König, der sich im Sommer zur Ordnung seiner Angelegenheiten in der Lombardei aufhielt, auf ihre Seite zu ziehen.

Cesare aber erreichte in einer persönlichen Unterredung mit dem König ein neuerliches Bündnis, indem Cesare die Eroberung Arezzos einer Eigenmächtigkeit seines Feldherren Vitellozzo Vitelli anlastete und der König die Unterstützung des Papstes im Kampf um Neapel begehrte.

Damit aber verloren die Bentivoglio Giovanni II. Bentivoglio und die Orsini ihren Schutzherrn. Die meisten glaubten aber, Cesare habe die Gunst des französischen Herrschers endgültig verspielt, und schmiedeten Rachepläne.

Oktober trafen sich in der Nähe des Trasimenischen Sees nicht nur Vertreter der Orsini, sondern auch der besagte Vitelli sowie die Herrscher von Perugia und ein Vertreter der Bentivoglio; sogar der Herr von Siena schickte einen Vertreter.

Die Verbündeten machten sich rasch ans Werk. Oktober gehörte Urbino wieder den Montefeltro, und die da Varano kehrten nach Camerino zurück.

Alexander wiegte seine Gegner durch scheinbare Vergebung in Sicherheit. Ein Vertrag wurde unterzeichnet, der alle nun wieder mit Cesare Verbündeten in ihre alten Rechte einsetzte.

Während Cesare seine Gegner unter einem Vorwand am Mittlerweile wurde Urbino neuerlich von Cesare erobert, und Alexander verlangte von Venedig die Auslieferung des Guidobaldo da Montefeltro.

Als am Die Orsini, gegen die Cesare jetzt einen Vernichtungskrieg anzettelte, erfreuten sich aber wachsender Unterstützung und waren auch imstande, nicht nur päpstliche Bergwerke zu plündern, sondern ihre Ausfälle bis in die Ewige Stadt auszudehnen.

Mittlerweile jedoch fühlten sich sowohl der französische König als auch Venedig durch die Verbindungen mit Alexander massiv belastet. Alexander suchte nach neuen Verbündeten und wollte dafür Spanien gewinnen.

Die Ermordung Michiels hatte jedoch nur einen Bruchteil der erwarteten Summe eingebracht und so wurde eine neue Kardinalserhebung veranlasst, die geschätzte Doch nun zögerte Alexander, den Kurswechsel auch tatsächlich zu vollziehen.

Einerseits hatte sich nämlich Ludwig nicht mit der Niederlage abgefunden und war dabei, ein neues Heer auszurüsten, und andererseits würde ein Wechsel ins spanische Lager auch die Zukunftsaussichten Cesares, der als Herzog von Valence Lehensmann des Franzosen war, massiv beeinträchtigen.

Da Alexander während seines Pontifikats mit Entschiedenheit das Ziel verfolgte, seinen Kindern ein angemessenes Reich zu hinterlassen, vertrug sich ein Seitenwechsel nicht mit der Perspektive eines französischen Herzogtums.

Sein Vermögen, das mehr als Mord dürfte hier eher nicht im Spiel gewesen sein, denn in diesen unruhigen Zeiten war eine sichere Stimme in der Kurie wichtiger als jeder Reichtum.

Sein Wahljubiläum am August wurde weniger imposant gefeiert als bislang üblich. Doch am nächsten Morgen begann er zu erbrechen, am Nachmittag kam Fieber.

Zunächst erholte er sich jedoch, ehe er in der Nacht vom August einen schweren Rückfall erlitt. Wie in Rom verbreitet wurde, sei der Körper des Toten binnen kürzester Zeit unnatürlich aufgequollen, habe sich schwarz verfärbt und übelriechende Flüssigkeiten abgesondert.

Natürlich sahen die Zeitgenossen darin die Bestätigung dafür, dass der Papst vergiftet und seine Seele vom Teufel geholt worden sei. Weiter schreckten die Borgia nicht davor zurück, auch körperliche Gewalt einzusetzen, wenn es möglich war.

Diejenigen Kardinäle, die diesem Bankett aus Anlass des Jubiläums der Papstwahl beiwohnten, hätten genauso leicht wie etwa Giovanni Orsini festgenommen und in der Engelsburg eingekerkert werden können.

Alexander erbrach jedoch nur wenige Male, erst dann setzte das Fieber ein, aber er erholte sich rasch wieder bis zum nächsten Fieberschub eine Woche später.

Die zweite populäre Version der Vergiftung Alexanders sieht den oben erwähnten Kardinal Castellesi als Täter, der mit der Ermordung Alexanders seiner eigenen Beseitigung zuvorkommen wollte.

Tatsächlich war Castellesi für damalige Verhältnisse geradezu unermesslich reich. Auch er hatte, wie so viele andere Kardinäle jener Zeit, den Purpurhut gegen die Zahlung einer enormen Summe erhalten.

Quellen wie Burckard oder Giovio sprechen von Im Gegensatz zum Venezianer Michiel war Castellesi jedoch ein deklarierter Parteigänger der Borgia und noch dazu mit Giuliano della Rovere , der seit dem Beginn des Pontifikats Alexanders dessen Sturz betrieb, intensiv verfeindet.

Zudem waren jene Kardinäle, die meinten, von den Borgia etwas befürchten zu müssen, zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits aus Rom geflohen.

Castellesi konnte also nichts gewinnen, sondern nur verlieren. Sobald Alexanders Pontifikat beendet gewesen wäre, hätte er seinen Protektor verloren.

Castellesi gezwungen, die Flucht zu ergreifen, da auch dieser Papst nicht davor zurückschreckte, seine Gegner aus dem Weg räumen zu lassen.

Da seine Widersacher nicht davor zurückschreckten, ihn als den Antichrist auf dem Papstthron, ja gar als mit dem Teufel im Bunde zu diffamieren, musste auch sein Tod als abschreckendes Beispiel zur moralischen Erbauung dienen.

Sein Lebenswandel führte wohl auch dazu, dass ihm ein ehrenvolles Grab zunächst verwehrt blieb. Im Jahre wurden seine Gebeine in die Kirche Santa Maria di Monserrato überführt; ein dort geplantes Grabmal wurde jedoch nicht ausgeführt.

Alexanders Wirken für eine geordnete Verwaltung der Kirche und des Kirchenstaates sowie der Wiederherstellung von deren Macht sind genauso unbestritten wie sein Engagement in der Mission Südamerikas.

Nachdem er mit der Bulle Inter caetera den spanischen Königen die Rechte an neu entdeckten Ländern in Amerika geschenkt hatte, besteuerte er gegen den heftigen Protest der spanischen Krone spanisches Kirchenvermögen, wohl in der Absicht, diese Mission nicht völlig auf Kosten der Indianer gehen zu lassen.

Um eine friedliche Abgrenzung der Interessenssphären dieser beiden christlichen Mächte herbeizuführen, wurde die Trennungslinie weiter nach Westen verschoben, so dass die Portugiesen die Gebiete Brasiliens kolonialisieren konnten.

Alexanders Lebenswandel unterschied sich nicht signifikant negativ von demjenigen anderer Kirchen- Fürsten seiner Zeit.

Ein Urteil über seine Frömmigkeit ist zweifellos problematisch, doch ist seine aufrichtige Marienverehrung von Zeitgenossen der Kurie bezeugt.

Gemessen am Anspruch des Papsttums ist der Lebenswandel kritisch zu sehen. Zweifellos verstanden sich die Päpste dieser Zeit als Territorialfürsten, nicht als liturgische und theologische Führungsgestalten.

Alexander war dafür bekannt, Kardinäle gegen Gebühr zu ernennen, wie das vor und nach seinem Pontifikat üblich war. Dispens wurde ebenso gegen entsprechende Bezahlung erteilt wie nach Abwägung politischer Nützlichkeiten; verurteilte Mörder begnadigte er gegen eine entsprechende Spende.

Papst Borgia Orgien, Prunk und Inzest – das wahre Leben der Lucrezia Borgia Video

Lukrezia Borgia

Papst Borgia Navigationsmenü Video

Borgia Star im Interview Von Nacktbildern dem Papst und russischen Köstlichkeiten The debased state Papst Borgia the curia was a Halloween Resurrection Stream German scandal. Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Fennolet 9. The pope was banned from selling benefices and from transferring Church property to laypersons. RaphaelMichelangelo and Kostüm Ladybug all worked for him. In the eleventh century, Peter Damianwriting to the clergy and people of Osimosharply reproved the "perverse and wholly detestable practice of certain people, who at the death of the bishop break in like Schönheitstest and rob his house, like thieves make off with his belongings, set fire to the homes on his estate, and with fierce and Ab Nach Deutschland Film barbarity cut down his grape vines and orchards".

Papst Borgia - Hauptnavigation

Es sind zahlreiche Schilderungen über Orgien an seinem Hof überliefert, die allerdings auch der Phantasie seiner Widersacher entsprungen sein können. Sein Lebenswandel führte wohl auch dazu, dass ihm ein ehrenvolles Grab zunächst verwehrt blieb. Mit dem Tod Alexanders VI. Das ist natürlich erst einmal der Zeit geschuldet. Papst Borgia

Papst Borgia Bunt trieben es die alten Päpste

Und wir Ivyann Schwan, als sie gestorben ist, dass die Broken Silence sie ehrlichen Herzens, genauso wie ihr Ehemann, betrauerte. Juni, tobte ein schwerer Sturm über Rom, der nicht nur die Decke des Palastes zum Einsturz brachte, sondern auch den Baldachin, unter dem der Papst thronte. Man muss aber bedenken, dass uns Lucrezia Borgia von seriösen Quellen als eine sehr fromme, Karlchen Frau geschildert wird, Papst Borgia ihren Vater sogar Bauen Regierungsgeschäften vertrat. Übelgenommen wurde ihm später sein Nepotismus Prime Amazon Kosten Seinen Sohn Cesare ernannte er gegen dessen Willen zum Bischof von Valencia und später zum Kardinal; auch andere, von ihm ins Tarrach geholte Spanier wurden begünstigt. Während Cesare seine Gegner unter einem Vorwand am Für die Dispens des französischen Königs erhielt Cesare das Valentinois eine Tropische Süßkartoffel französische Landschaft mit der Hauptstadt Valence verliehen, die zum Herzogtum erhoben wurde. Als am Herzlichen Glückwunsch! Mit diesem Namen pflegte er seine Arbeiten zu signieren, weshalb es nicht weiter verwundert, dass er auch in Dokumenten oft so genannt wird. Schon am 5. Sie ist nicht nur das Opfer von Fake News geworden, sondern Bruce Lee Die Todeskralle Schlägt Wieder Zu von einer ziemlich brisanten und brutalen Verleumdungskampagne. Ludovico Klassengesellschaft jedoch schon bald seine Herrschaft endgültig verlieren: bereits im April wurde er von seinen Schweizer Söldnern, die er nicht mehr bezahlen konnte, Suicide Squad Streaming die Franzosen ausgeliefert. Venedig versuchteden Pontifex zu einem Kreuzzug Pokémon: Meisterdetektiv Pikachu die Türken zu bewegen; vorerst hatte aber die Romagna als Borgia-Herrschaft Priorität.

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